Please find listed here only secondary sources of general philosophical interest.  For regional (e.g. African Thought), period-specific (e.g. Ancient Thought) or subject-specific (e.g. Ethics) secondary sources, please go to the relevant pages.



Book Series:


  • Angeles, Peter A.  HarperCollins Dictionary of Philosophy.  New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

  • Audi, Robert, ed.  The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy.  Cambridge: CUP, 1995.

  • Blackburn, Simon.  The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy.  Oxford: OUP, 1994.

  • Flew, Anthony.  A Dictionary of Philosophy.  Grammercy, 19.

  • Lacey, A. R., ed.  A Dictionary of Philosophy.  London: Routledge, 1996.

  • Mautner, Thomas.  Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy.  Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1996.

  • Runes, Dagobert R.  The Dictionary of Philosophy.  New York: Philosophical Library, 1942.  Rpt. Sacramento: Citadel, 2002.


  • Craig, Edward, and Luciano Floridi, eds.  Concise Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy.  London: Routledge, 1999.

  • Craig, Edward, and Luciano Floridi, eds.  Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy.  10 Vols.  London: Routledge,
  • Edwards, Paul, ed.  Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  8 Vols.  New York: Macmillan, 1967.
    • Borchert, Donald M., ed.  The Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: Supplement.  London: Macmillan, 1996.
  • Urmson, J. O..  Concise Encyclopaedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers.  London: Routledge, 1960.  (several subsequent reprintings and revisions)

  • Wiener, Philip P., ed.  The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas.  5 Vols.  New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973-74.


  • Rodgers, Nigel, and Mel Thompson. Philosophers Behaving Badly.  Peter Owen, 2005.

Surveys / Introductions:

  • Appiah, Kwame Anthony.  Thinking It Through: an Introduction to Contemporary Philosophy.  Oxford: OUP, 2004.
  • Ayer, A. J.  The Central Questions of Philosophy.  New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973.

  • Blackburn, Simon.  Think: a Compelling Introduction to PhilosophyOxford: OUP, 1999.
  • Bunnin, Nicholas, and E. P. Tsui-James, eds.  The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.
  • Craig, Edward.  Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction.  Oxford: OUP, 2002.
  • Earle, William James.  Introduction To Philosophy.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.
  • Fearn, Nicholas.  Philosophy: the Latest Answers to the Oldest Questions.  Atlantic Books, .
  • Flew, Anthony.  An Introduction to Western Philosophy: Ideas and Arguments.  New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971.
  • Goldstein, Lawrence.  The Philosopher’s Habitat: an Introduction to, Investigations in, and Applications of, Modern Philosophy.  London: Routledge, 1990.
  • Grayling, A. C., ed. Philosophy 2: Further Through the Subject.  Oxford: OUP, 1998.
  • Grayling, A. C., ed. Philosophy: a Guide Through the SubjectOxford: OUP, 1995.
  • Harrison-Barbet, Anthony.  Mastering Philosophy.   2nd Ed.  New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2001.
  • Honderich, Ted.  Oxford Companion to Philosophy.  Oxford: OUP, 1995.
  • Hunnex, Milton D.  Chronological and Thematic Charts of Philosophies and Philosophers.  Zondervan, 1986.

  • Margolis, Joseph.  Knowledge and Existence: an Introduction to Philosophical Problems.  Oxford: OUP, 1989.
  • Martin, M. G. F., ed.  Philosophy Study Guide.  London: Aristotelian Society, 1997.
  • Morton, Adam.  Philosophy in Practice: an Introduction to the Main Questions.  2nd Ed.  Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
  • Nagel, Thomas. What Does It All Mean?  A Very Short Introduction to Philosophy.  Oxford: OUP, 1987.
  • Palmer, Donald.  Looking at Philosophy: the Unbearable Heaviness of Philosophy Made Lighter.  3rd Ed.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.
  • Pinchin, Calvin.  Issues in Philosophy.  Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1989.
  • Pojman, Louis P.  Philosophy: the Pursuit of Wisdom.  3rd Ed.  Stamford, CT: Thomson Learning, 2000.

  • Popkin, Richard, and Avrum Stroll.  Philosophy Made Simple.   Rev. Ed.  1993.
  • Russell, Bertrand.  The Problems of PhilosophyLondon: Williams and Norgate; New York: Henry Holt, 1912.
  • Chappell, Timothy.  The Inescapable Self: an Introduction to Western Philosophy.  London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, .

  • Scruton, Roger.  Modern Philosophy: an Introduction and Survey.  Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1996. 

  • Roger Scruton.  An Intelligent Person's Guide to Philosophy.  London: Duckworth, 1996.
  • Solomon, Robert.  The Big Questions: a Short Introduction to Philosophy.  6th Ed.  Harcourt College, 2001.
  • Solomon, Roger.  Introducing Philosophy: a Text With Integrated Readings.  7th Ed.  Oxford: OUP, 2000.

  • Warburton, Nigel.  Philosophy: the Basics.  London: Routledge, 1992.
  • Westphal, Jonathan.  Philosophical Propositions: an Introduction to Philosophy.  London: Routledge, 1998.




Book Series:



Introductions / Surveys:




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