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ÉMILE DURKHEIM (1858 - 1917)

A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint; or again, every way of acting which is general throughout a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right independent of its individual manifestations.  (The Rules of Sociological Method)

SOURCES: PRIMARY

Off-Line:

  • Anthologies:

    • Selected Writings.  Ed. Anthony Giddens.  Cambridge: CUP, 1972.

  • Selected Individual Works:

    • 1914.

      • Pragmatism and Sociology.  Trans. J. C. Whitehouse.  New York: Columbia UP, 1983.

    • Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse.  1912.  Paris: PUF, 1960.

      • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life.  Trans. J. W. Swain.  London: George Allen and Unwin, 1915.

    • 1901.

      • The Rules of Sociological Method.  Ed. George E. G. Catlin.  New York: Free Press, 1938.

        • "What is a Social Fact?" 

    • 1897.

      • Suicide.  Trans. J. A. Spaulding and George Simpson.  New York: Free Press, 1951.

    • 1893.

      • The Division of Labour in Society.  Trans. George Simpson.  New York: Free Press, 1933.

      • Primitive Classifications.  By Durkheim and Marcel Mauss.  Trans. R. Needham.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963.

On-Line:

SOURCES: SECONDARY

Off-Line:

  • Anthologies:

    • Gane, Mike, ed.  The Radical Sociology of Durkheim and Mauss.  London: Routledge, 1992.

  • Selected Individual Works:

    • Gane, Mike.  On Durkheim’s Rules of Sociological Method.  London: Routledge, 1988.
    • Hamilton, Peter.  "Durkheim."  Knowledge and Social Structure: an Introduction to the Classical Argument in the Sociology of Knowledge.  London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974.  103-119.
    • Jones, Robert Alun.  The Development of Durkheim's Social Realism.  Cambridge: CUP, 1999.

    • LaCapra, Dominick.  Emile Durkheim: Sociologist and Philosopher.  Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1972.  Rpt. U of Chicago P, 1985.  Rev. ed. Davies Group, 2001.

    • Lukes, Steven.  Emile Durkheim: his Life and Work.  New York: Harper and Row, 1972.

    • Nielsen, Donald A.  Three Faces of God: Society, Religion, and the Categories of Totality in the Philosophy of Emile Durkheim.  Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.

    • Overington, Michael A.  “A Rhetorical Appreciation of a Sociological Classic: Durkheim's Suicide.”  Canadian Journal of Sociology 6 (1981): 447-461.

    • Rawls, Anne Warfield.  Epistemology and Practice: Durkheim's The Elementary Forms of Religious Life.  Cambridge: CUP, 2004.

    • Rawls, Anne Warfield.  "Durkheim's Challenge to Philosophy: Human Reason Explained as a Product of Enacted Social Practices."  American Journal of Sociology 104.3 (1998): .

    • Schmaus, Warren.  Rethinking Durkheim and his Tradition. Cambridge: CUP, 2004.

    • Strenski, Ivan.  Contesting Sacrifice: Religion, Nationalism, and Social Thought in France.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2002.

    • Strenski, Ivan.  Durkheim and the Jews of France.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1997.

    • Surkis, Judith.  Sexing the Citizen: Morality and Masculinity in France: 1870-1920.  Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2006.

On-Line:

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